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Understanding and Using the National Core Arts Standards

The arts have always served as the distinctive vehicle for discovering who we are. Providing ways of thinking as disciplined as science or math and as disparate as philosophy or literature, the arts are used by and have shaped every culture and individual on earth. They continue to infuse our lives on nearly all levels—generating a significant part of the creative and intellectual capital that drives our economy. The arts inform our lives with meaning every time we experience the joy of a well-remembered song, experience the flash of inspiration that comes with immersing ourselves in an artist’s sculpture, enjoying a sublime dance, learning from an exciting animation, or being moved by a captivating play.

The central purposes of education standards are to identify the learning that we want for all of our students and to drive improvement in the system that delivers that learning. Standards, therefore, should embody the key concepts, processes and traditions of study in each subject area, and articulate the aspirations of those invested in our schools—students, teachers, administrators, and the community at large. To realize that end goal, these new, voluntary National Core Arts Standards are framed by artistic literacy, as outlined in philosophical foundations, lifelong goals, and artistic processes; articulated as anchor and performance standards that students should attain; and supported by instructional resources, including model cornerstone assessments that illustrate how literacy might be measured. The connective threads of this conceptual framework are designed to be understood by all stakeholders and, ultimately, to ensure success for both educators and students.

While broad in concept, the standards are also focused in a framework that delivers the educational nuance of standards in only four artistic processes, bringing together what artists do and what we want for our students. Within this simple and elegant structure, decision-makers from teachers, to superintendents, to parents will be able to move forward in the rich variety of approaches that have become part of the American educational landscape.

The National Core Arts Standards are designed to guide the delivery of arts education in the classroom with new ways of thinking, learning, and creating. The standards also inform policy-makers about implementation of arts programs for the traditional and emerging models and structures of education. As with other subject areas, a commitment to quality education, equitable opportunities, and comprehensive expectations is embedded within the new arts standards.

Inclusion Guidelines

Media Arts/Connecting
Process Component: Synthesize
Anchor Standard: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
Media Arts/Connecting
Process Component: Relate
Anchor Standard: Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural, and historical context to deepen understanding.

Media Arts/Creating
Process Component: Conceive
Anchor Standard: Generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work.
Media Arts/Creating
Process Component: Develop
Anchor Standard: Organize and develop artistic ideas and work.
Media Arts/Creating
Process Component: Construct
Anchor Standard: Refine and complete artistic work.
Media Arts/Producing
Process Component: Integrate
Anchor Standard: Select, analyze, and interpret artistic work for presentation.
Media Arts/Producing
Process Component: Practice
Anchor Standard: Develop and refine artistic techniques and work for presentation.
Media Arts/Producing
Process Component: Present

Anchor Standard: Convey meaning through the presentation of artistic work.

Media Arts/Responding
Process Component: Perceive
Anchor Standard: Perceive and analyze artistic work.
Media Arts/Responding
Process Component: Interpret
Anchor Standard: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
Media Arts/Responding
Process Component: Evaluate
Anchor Standard: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.


Welcome to the 2014 Theatre Standards. These grade-by-grade standards are an effort to articulate the most fundamental elements of theatre, in the hope that by doing so there will be recognition that every student  can and should achieve a level of proficiency or beyond in this ancient and honorable craft. The most widespread theatre education opportunities in the United States have traditionally been in high schools, and the standards included here can readily be employed as a springboard for curriculum design and assessment at that level. The standards in the earlier grades suggest the same rigor and understanding but it’s understood that at each successively earlier grade, there are fewer and fewer theatre programs and trained educators to teach in them. Thus, the PreK through middle grade standards are largely aspirational—what should be in our schools and arts programs.

The 2014 Theatre Standards are written with both drama processes and theatre products in mind. While many secondary theatre programs focus on performance and design in staged productions as evidence of a student’s understanding and achievement in the art, ongoing student engagement in theatre without an end product in mind has not always been defined and valued. These standards address those drama processes as well as traditional theatre. Drama processes encompass envisioned worlds and unscripted activities designed to engage students in a wide range of real and imagined issues; theatre includes the broader and more traditional conventions of the craft that have been developed over the centuries—scripted plays, acting, public performance, and stagecraft.

To address both process and product in theatre, the grade 3 through high school standards of Proficient, Advanced, and Accomplished often include the term “drama/theatre” to clarify the distinct but companion parts of theatre education. The PreK through grade 2 standards, acknowledging the early childhood need for supervision and unfettered play, employ the phraseology “dramatic play” and/or “guided drama experience.”

You will also find Model Cornerstone Assessments (MCAs) intended to show the ways in which standards serve as a foundation for the creation of reliable and authentic measurements of student learning in theatre. These MCAs are not put forth as a definitive assessment of a particular set of skills; rather they presented to inspire teachers to create their own assessments that serve both their pedagogy and the learning needs of their students.

Please see the resources on these two partner organizations websites:

Educational Theatre Association

American Alliance for Theatre and Education

Model Cornerstone Assessments:

  • Grade 2
  • Grade 5
  • Grade 8: A
  • Grade 8: B
  • High School: Proficient
  • High School: Accomplished
  • High School: Advanced

    Additional Resources:

  • Inclusion Guidelines
  • Theatre Standards Glossary
  • Visual Arts

    Visual Arts include the traditional fine arts such as drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, and sculpture; media arts including film, graphic communications, animation, and emerging technologies; architectural, environmental, and industrial arts such as urban, interior, product, and landscape design; folk arts; and works of art such as ceramics, fibers, jewelry, works in wood, paper, and other materials. (National Art Education Association)

    The Visual Arts Standards provide learning progressions from Pre k-12. Please read the conceptual framework narrative to learn more about the additional materials which provide a context for the grade level visual arts Performance Standards. These include:

    • Philosophical Foundations and Lifelong Goals for Artistic Literacy;
    • Definitions of the artistic processes of Creating, Presenting, Responding, and Connecting;
    • Anchor Standards which are common across all five of the arts disciplines.

    The glossary provides definitions for those terms which the writing team felt would benefit from explaining the context or point of view regarding the use of the term within the standards.

    1. The standards provide the foundation for visual art education for all students. The standards support student-learning outcomes through big ideas – enduring understandings and essential questions. The concepts embedded in the standards reflect the scope of learning – the knowledge, skills, and understandings - taught through study of the visual arts. By including all aspects of creating, presenting, responding, and connecting in study of the visual arts, student learning through these standards explores the full scope of what it means to be an artistically literate citizen. While presented chronologically the processes are best designed and taught in a blended fashion to support rich artistic skills and behaviors.

    2. The standards provide ways to address the content of visual art education within the school year. There are 15 Enduring Understandings with 15 correlated grade-by-grade (preK-8 and three levels for high school) Performance Standards. Art educators will be able to cluster group standards using more than one within a given instructional unit. The Performance Standards offer a practical system for teachers to use to inform their instruction.

    3. The standards emphasize deep learning in the visual arts creating higher expectations and support college, career and citizenship readiness for all students. The performance standards offer learning progressions for students. Embedded in the standards are ideas about how arts learning can be broadened and deepened to support students in making meaning of their lives and their world. Essential questions are provided for teachers as thought starters promoting inquiry based teaching and learning. They support communicating and learning in art by providing language needed for students and stakeholders alike.

    4. The standards provide opportunities for educators to reflect on their practice. The visual arts performance standards are fundamentally grounded in collective beliefs about what constitutes effective teaching and learning. Individual educators are encouraged to review and use the standards in achieving the goal of continuous improvement.

    Whether it means updating curriculum or adapting an individual art lesson or curriculum unit, the new visual arts standards inspire and support the ways in which art educators keep their teaching fresh and dynamic.

    For more information please access the resources link.

    We partner with the National Art Education Association.

    Model Cornerstone Assessments:

  • Grade 2
  • Grade 5
  • Grade 8
  • High School: Proficient
  • High School: Accomplished
  • High School: Advanced

    Additional Resources:

  • Inclusion Guidelines
  • Visual Arts Standards Glossary
  • Dance

    The National Core Arts Standards in Dance are designed to enable students to achieve dance literacy.

    To be literate in the arts, students need specific knowledge and skills in a particular arts discipline to a degree that allows for fluency and deep understanding. In dance, this means discovering the expressive elements of dance; knowing the terminology that is used to comprehend dance; having a clear sense of embodying dance; and being able to reflect, critique, and connect personal experience to dance.

    Four artistic processes organize the standards across the arts disciplines: Creating, Performing, Responding, and Connecting. Each artistic process includes a set of overarching anchor standards. The anchor standards are consistent among the arts disciplines represented in the National Core Arts Standards and demonstrate the breadth of the work. They are held constant for student learning over time.

    Each anchor standard in dance is supported by a process component, an enduring understanding, and an essential question. These additional features will benefit educational leaders and teachers as they consider curricular models and structure lessons aligned to the dance standards. Performance standards describe more specifically what students should know and be able to do in dance and are expressed as measurable outcomes across the grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade and into high school at three levels of proficiency. The performance standards are the substantive
    portion of the work and represent the depth of study in dance.

    Of significance is that the four artistic processes are addressed linearly in written standards, but are envisioned to occur simultaneously in the actual practice of dance. The dancer imagines, envisions, or improvises movements (creating), executes the movements (performing), reflects on them (responding), and connects the experience to all other contexts of meaning or knowledge (connecting). As a result, one lesson can address many standards at the same time. In a single class, students can learn by solving movement problems, showing their ideas through movement, thinking critically about them, and relating them to other ideas, experiences, contexts, and meanings.

    The National Core Arts Standards in Dance are rooted in a creative approach to teaching and learning. They describe expectations for learning in dance regardless of culture, style or genre and impart the breadth and depth of the dance experience through the art-making processes. The goal of the standards is to inspire dance educators and their students to explore the many facets of dance and prepare them for a lifetime of engagement with the art form.

    For more information about the National Core Arts Standards in Dance, please refer to the Dance Standards resource page and the National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Conceptual Framework for Arts Learning.

    We partner with the National Dance Education Organization.

    Model Cornerstone Assessments:

  • Grade 2
  • Grade 5
  • Grade 8
  • High School: Proficient
  • High School: Accomplished
  • High School: Advanced

    Additional Resources:

  • Inclusion Guidelines
  • Elements of Dance
  • NCAS Dance Intentions
  • NDEO Understanding Context in NCAS Dance Standards
  • Dance Standards Glossary
  • Media Arts

    Media arts standards are intended to address the diverse forms and categories of media arts, including: imaging, sound, moving image, virtual and interactive. Media arts standards do not dictate what or how to teach, but define age-appropriate outcomes for students, towards the achievement of Enduring Understandings and Artistic Literacy. They are therefore quite generalized, not specifying particular technologies or techniques, and containing very few examples of terminology and activities. The standards allow for a great diversity of instruction, methodology and circumstance. They are adaptive to the wide range of conditions that exist currently for the form across the country. State and district standards may offer greater specificity as they are developed, and Model Cornerstone Assessments will provide more specific examples of projects, lessons and activities.

    The standards are normally presented in a linear, sequential format, which does provide a representation of the creative production process. But the standards are designed for access in a non-linear manner as well, whereby one can address any particular process, process component, or standard on an as needed basis. For example, lessons and units can easily begin within Connecting by considering a given context, move next into Responding to analyze particular examples of media arts, and then into Creating to begin production. Also, the standards represent portions of holistic creative process, and may be addressed in rapid-fire succession, as one is creating work. Therefore, a brainstorming session that is contained within Creating is also constantly accessing Responding and even Connecting. One well-structured class, lesson or unit can address many, if not all standards. This interactive web site offers versatility in accessing the standards for flexibility in lesson planning, instruction, and assessment. For example, process components may be selected as a primary organizational tool for some teachers.

    Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions are written at one grade-level, and are to be adapted by the instructor to their specific grade-level. It is advisable to view standards at lower and higher grade levels in order to view a progression of proficiency. Nevertheless, it is assumed that students may have little or no formal media arts instruction at a particular grade level. Based on best practice, collaboration is assumed throughout the media arts standards.

    We partner with Media Arts Education.

    For more information please access the resources link.

    Model Cornerstone Assessments:

  • Grade 2
  • Grade 5
  • Grade 8
  • High School: Proficient
  • High School: Accomplished
  • High School: Advanced

    Additional Resources:

  • Inclusion Guidelines
  • FAQ
  • Final
  • Media Arts Standards Glossary
  • Music

    The National Core Music Standards are designed to guide music educators as they help their students achieve the goal of independent music literacy. The structure of the standards organizes outcomes by Artistic Process, thereby facilitating sequential instruction while also authentically reflecting the way musicians think and work.

    The music standards are organized and presented as follows:

    • All music performance standards are grouped under the Artistic Processes of Creating, Performing, or Responding.
    • Because music connections are an essential part of each Artistic Process, open-ended Connecting outcomes cross-reference users to Creating, Performing, and Responding performance standards.
    • Music performance standards are organized and coded according to the process components or “steps” of the Artistic Processes. The process components for each Process are as follows:
      • Creating: Imagine; Plan and Make; Evaluate and Refine, and Present
      • Performing: Select; Analyze; Interpret; Rehearse, Evaluate, and Refine; and Present
      • Responding: Select; Analyze; Interpret; and Evaluate
    • Performance standards are provided for each grade level from Prekindergarten through grade eight.
    • Four distinct “strands” of high school performance standards are provided, reflecting the increasing variety of music courses offered in American secondary schools.
      • Ensemble, Harmonizing Instrument (guitar, keyboard, etc.), Composition/Theory, and Music Technology performance standards are provided for three levels: Proficient, Accomplished, and Advanced.
      • Because many students become involved in Ensemble and Harmonizing Instrument classes before they enter high school, performance standards for these strands also include two preparatory levels: Novice (nominally assigned to the fifth grade level) and Intermediate (nominally the eighth grade level).
    • To clarify the progression of performance standards across grade and high school levels, italic type is used to indicate changes from one grade level to the next.
    • Similarities across the arts disciplines are highlighted in the eleven Common Anchors, which are shared by all five sets of discipline-specific standards. Each Anchor includes one or more process components.
    • The standards are based on the assumption of quality resources, including instructional time, spanning PreK-8 and continuing at the high school level.

    Draft Model Cornerstone Assessments provide protocols to help music educators develop measures of student achievement. These assessments will be piloted in a diverse array of classrooms across the United States, refined for use in varied settings, and used to generate student work that will eventually be made available online to illustrate the standards.

    Many additional tools are available on this National Coalition for Core Arts Standards web site. More detailed explanations of the organization and implications of the Core Music Standards can be found at The National Association for Music Education (NAfME) site will present Opportunity-to-Learn Standards, outlining the resources needed to deliver quality instruction; advocacy resources for explaining standards-based education to decision-makers and the public; and links to available professional development, as well as advice on making the standards a reality in schools across the nation.

    Our partner organization is the National Association for Music Education.

    Model Cornerstone Assessments:

  • Music MCA's are currently undergoing revision. The most current versions of the MCA's may be found on the website of the National Association for Music Education at this url:

    Additional Resources:

  • Inclusion Guidelines
  • Definitions, EUs and EQs
  • Music Standards Glossary
  • Theatre Glossary

    Acting techniques: specific skills, pedagogies, theories, or methods of investigation used by an actor to prepare for a theatre performance
    Believability: theatrical choices thought to be “true” based upon an understanding of any given fictional moment, interpretation of text, and/or human interaction
    Character Traits: observable embodied actions that illustrate a character’s personality, values, beliefs, and history
    Conflict: the problem, confrontation, or struggle in a scene or play; conflict may include a character against him or herself, a character in opposition to another character, a character against nature, a character against society, or a character against the supernatural
    Creative Drama: a process-centered, non-exhibitional approach to drama intended to benefit the performers themselves; story drama and process drama are two types of creative drama
    Creative Processes: the application of production and technical elements (see the definitions) to a theatrical production
    Devised Drama: creation of an original performance piece by an ensemble
    Dialogue: a conversation between two or more characters
    Dramatic Play: make-believe where children naturally assign and accept roles, then act them out
    Focus: commitment by a participant (an actor, technician, director) to remain in the scope of the project or to stay within the world of the play
    Genre: relating to a specific kind or type of drama and theatre such as a tragedy, drama, melodrama, comedy, or farce
    Gesture: an expressive and planned movement of the body or limbs
    Given Circumstances: the underlying actions and events that have happened before the play, story, or devised piece begins
    Guided Drama Experience: a leader guides participants during a process drama, story drama, or creative drama experience (see the definitions) through side-coaching, narration, and prompting; the action of the drama does not stop in order for the leader to support the students; facilitator may guide participants in or out of role 
    Imaginary Elsewhere: an imagined location which can be historical, fictional, or realistic
    Imagined Worlds: an imaginary world created collectively by participants in a drama experience
    Improvise: the spontaneous, intuitive, and immediate response of movement and speech; a distinction can be made between spontaneous improvisation, which is immediate and unrehearsed, and prepared improvisation, which is shaped and rehearsed
    Inner Thoughts: the underlying and implied meaning or intentions in the character’s dialogue or actions (also known as subtext)
    Motivation: reasons why a character behaves or reacts in a particular way in a scene or play
    Non-Representational Materials: objects which can be transformed into specific props through the imagination
    Objective: a goal or particular need or want that a character has within a scene or play
    Plot: a narrative as revealed through the action and/or dialogue; traditionally, a plot has the elements of exposition, inciting incident, conflict, rising action, climax, and resolution or falling action
    Process Drama: a non-linear, episodic, process-centered, improvised form of drama in which teacher and students are in-role exploring and reflecting on an issue, story, theme, problem, or idea in a non-exhibitional format that is intended to benefit the performers themselves
    Production Elements: technical elements selected for use in a specific production, including sets, sound, costumes, lights, music, props, and make-up, as well as elements specific to the production such as puppets, masks, special effects, or other story telling devices/concepts
    Script Analysis: the study of a script to understand the underlying structure and themes of the play’s story, and the motives and objectives of its characters
    Scripted Drama: a piece of writing for the theatre that includes a description of the setting, a list of the characters, the dialogue, and the action of the characters
    Staging: patterns of movement in a scene or play including, for example, stage crosses, entrances, and exits which help to convey meaning
    Story Drama: episodic, process-centered, improvised form of drama that uses existing literature as a starting point for drama exploration, the drama explores implied moments (before, after, or within) that may not exist in the story and is presented in a non-exhibitional format that is intended to benefit the performers themselves
    Story Elements: characters, setting, dialogue, and plot that create a story
    Style: the use of a specific set of characteristic or distinctive techniques such as realism, expressionism, epic theatre, documentary theatre, or classical drama; style may also refer to the unique artistic choices of a particular playwright, director, or actor
    Tactic: the means by which a character seeks to achieve their objective, the selection of tactics are based on the obstacle presented; in acting and directing a tactic refers to a specific action verb
    Technical Elements: the elements of spectacle such as sets, sound, costume, lights, music, props, and makeup used to create a unified and meaningful design for a theatrical production
    Theatrical Conventions: practices and/or devices that the audience and actors accept in the world of the play even when it is not realistic, such as a narrator, flashback, or an aside
    Theme: the aspect of the human condition under investigation in the drama; it can be drawn from unifying topics or questions across content areas
    Visual Composition: the arrangement of actors and scenery on a stage for a theatrical production, sometimes known as mise en scène.

    Visual Arts Glossary

    Appropriation: intentional borrowing, copying, and alteration of preexisting images and objects
    Art: In everyday discussions and in the history of aesthetics, multiple (and sometimes contradictory) definitions of art have been proposed. In a classic article, “The In the Next Generation Core Visual Arts Standards, the word art is used in the classificatory sense to mean “an artifact or action that has been put forward by an Role of Theory in Aesthetics,” Morris Weitz (1956) recommended differentiating between classificatory (classifying) and honorific (honoring) definitions of art. artist or other person as something to be experienced, interpreted, and appreciated.
    Art-Making Approaches: diverse strategies and procedures by which artists initiate and pursue making a work
    Artist Statement: information about context, explanations of process, descriptions of learning, related stories, reflections, or other details in a written or spoken format shared by the artist to extend and deepen understanding of his or her artwork; an artist statement can be didactic, descriptive, or reflective in nature
    Artistic Investigations: in making art, forms of inquiry and exploration; through artistic investigation artists go beyond illustrating pre-existing ideas or following directions, and students generate fresh insights—new ways of seeing and knowing
    Artwork: artifact or action that has been put forward by an artist or other person as something to be experienced, interpreted, and appreciated
    Brainstorm: technique for the initial production of ideas or ways of solving a problem by an individual or group in which ideas are spontaneously contributed without critical comment or judgment
    Characteristic(S): attribute, feature, property, or essential quality
    Characteristics Of Form (And Structure): terms drawn from traditional, modern, and contemporary sources that identify the range of attributes that can be used to describe works of art and design to aid students in experiencing and perceiving the qualities of artworks, enabling them to create their own work and to appreciate and interpret the work of others
    Collaboration: joint effort of working together to formulate and solve creative problems
    Collaboratively: joining with others in attentive participation in an activity of imagining, exploring, and/or making
    Concepts: ideas, thoughts, schemata; art arising out of conceptual experimentation that emphasizes making meaning through ideas rather than through materiality or form
    Constructed Environment: human-made or modified spaces and places; art and design-related disciplines such as architecture, urban planning, interior design, game design, virtual environment, and landscape design shape the places in which people live, work, and play
    Contemporary Artistic Practice: processes, techniques, media, procedures, behaviors, actions, and conceptual approaches by which an artist or designer makes work using methods that, though they may be based on traditional practices, reflect changing contextual, conceptual, aesthetic, material and technical possibilities; examples include artwork made with appropriated images or materials, social practice artworks that involve the audience, performance art, new media works, installations, and artistic interventions in public spaces
    Contemporary Criteria: principles by which a work of art or design is understood and evaluated in contemporary contexts which, for example, include judging not necessarily on originality, but rather on how the work is re-contextualized to create new meanings  
    Context: interrelated conditions surrounding the creation and experiencing of an artwork, including the artist, viewer/audiences, time, culture, presentation, and location of the artwork’s creation and reception
    Copyright: form of protection grounded in the U.S. Constitution and granted by law for original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression, covering both published and unpublished works
    Creative Commons: copyright license templates that provide a simple, standardized way to give the public permission to share and use creative work on conditions of the maker’s choice (
    Creativity: ability to conceive and develop rich, original ideas, discover unexpected connections, and invent or make new things
    Criteria: in art and design, principles that direct attention to significant aspects of a work and provide guidelines for evaluating its success
    Critique: individual or collective reflective process by which artists or designers experience, analyze, and evaluate a work of art or design
    Cultural Contexts: ideas, beliefs, values, norms, customs, traits, practices, and characteristics shared by individuals within a group that form the circumstances surrounding the creation, presentation, preservation, and response to art
    Cultural Traditions: pattern of practices and beliefs within a societal group
    Curate: collect, sort, and organize objects, artworks, and artifacts; preserve and maintain historical records and catalogue exhibits
    Curator: person responsible for acquiring, caring for, and exhibiting objects, artworks, and artifacts
    Design: application of creativity to planning the optimal solution to a given problem and communication of that plan to others
    Digital Format: anything in electronic form including photos, images, video, audio files, or artwork created or presented through electronic means; a gallery of artwork viewed electronically through any device
    Engagement: attentive participation in an activity of imagining, exploring, and making
    Established Criteria: identified principles that direct attention to significant aspects of various types of artwork in order to provide guidelines for evaluating the work; these may be commonly accepted principles that have been developed by artists, curators, historians, critics, educators and others or principles developed by an individual or group to pertain to a specific work of art or design
    Exhibition Narrative: written description of an exhibition intended to educate viewers about its purpose
    Expressive Properties: moods, feelings, or ideas evoked or suggested through the attributes, features, or qualities of an image or work of art
    Fair Use: limitation in copyright law which sets out factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use of one’s work is “fair,” such as the purpose and character of the use, the amount of the work used, and whether the use will affect the market for the work
    Formal And Conceptual Vocabularies: terms, methods, concepts, or strategies used to experience, describe, analyze, plan, and make works of art and design drawn from traditional, modern, contemporary, and continually emerging sources in diverse cultures.
    Genre: category of art or design identified by similarities in form, subject matter, content, or technique
    Image: visual representation of a person, animal, thing, idea, or concept
    Imaginative Play: experimentation by children in defining identities and points of view by developing skills in conceiving, planning, making art, and communicating
    Innovative Thinking: imagining or and conceiving something new and unexpected, including fresh ideas and ways of looking at things and new approaches to old problems as well as formulating new problems
    Material Culture: human-constructed or human-mediated objects, forms, or expressions, that extend to other senses and study beyond the traditional art historical focus on the exemplary to the study of common objects, ordinary spaces, and every day rituals
    Materials: substances out of which art is made or composed, ranging from the traditional to “non-art” material and virtual, cybernetic, and simulated materials
    Medium/Media: mode(s) of artistic expression or communication; material or other resources used for creating art
    Open Source: computer software for which the copyright holder freely provides the right to use, study, change, and distribute the software to anyone for any purpose (
    Personal Criteria: principles for evaluating art and design based on individual preferences
    Play: spontaneous engaged activity through which children learn to experience, experiment, discover, and create
    Portfolio: actual or virtual collection of artworks and documentation demonstrating art and design knowledge and skills organized to reflect an individual’s creative growth and artistic literacy
    Preservation: activity of protecting, saving, and caring for objects, artifacts, and artworks through a variety of means
    Preserve: protect, save, and care for (curate) objects, artifacts, and artworks
    Relevant Criteria: principles that apply to making, revising, understanding, and evaluating a particular work of art or design that are generated by identifying the significant characteristics of a work
    Style: recognizable characteristics of art or design that are found consistently in historical periods, cultural traditions, schools of art, or works of an individual artist
    Technologies: tools, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods to shape, adapt, and preserve artworks, artifacts, objects, and natural and human-made environments
    Text: that form which information can be gathered, expanding beyond the traditional notion of written language to encompass visual representations such as paintings, sculpture, diagrams, graphics, films, and maps
    Venue: place or setting for an art exhibition, either a physical space or a virtual environment
    Visual Components: properties of an image that can be perceived
    Visual Imagery: group of images; images in general
    Visual Organization Approaches And Strategies: graphic design strategies such as hierarchy, consistency, grids, spacing, scale, weight, proximity, alignment, and typography choice used to create focus and clarity in a work
    Visual Plan: drawing, picture, diagram, or model of the layout of an art exhibit where individual works of art and artifacts are presented along with interpretive materials within a given space or venue

    Dance Glossary

    Aesthetic: a set of principles concerned with the nature and appreciation of beauty
    Alignment: the process of adjusting the skeletal and muscular system to gravity to support effective functionality
    Alternative Performance Venue: a performance site other than a standard Western style theater (for example, classroom, site specific venue, or natural environment)
    Anatomical Principles: the way the human body's skeletal, muscular and vascular systems work separately and in coordination
    Artistic Criteria: aspects of craft and skill used to fulfill artistic intent
    Artistic Expression: The manifestations of artistic intent though dance, drama music, poetry, fiction, painting, sculpture or other artistic media. In dance, this involves the dance and the dancers within a context.
    Artistic Intent: the purpose, main idea, and expressive or communicative goals(s) of a dance composition study, work, or performance.
    Artistic Statement: an artist’s verbal or written introduction of their work from their own perspective to convey the deeper meaning or purpose
    Basic Dance Terminology: (Tier 2/grades 3-5): vocabulary used to describe dance movement techniques, structures, works, and experiences that are widely shared in the field of dance (for example, stage terminology, compositional vocabulary, language defining dance structures and devices, anatomical references, dance techniques such as alignment or “line”)
    Body Patterning: neuromuscular patterns (for example, core-distal, head-tail, homologous [upper-lower], homo-lateral [same-side], cross-lateral [crossing the body midline])
    Body-Mind Principles: concepts explored and/or employed to support body-mind connections (for example, breath, awareness of the environment, grounding, movement initiation, use of imagery, intention, inner-outer, stability-mobility)
    Body-Use: the ways in which movement patterns and body parts are used in movement and dance practice; descriptive method of identifying patterns
    Bound Movement: an “effort element” from Laban Movement Analysis in which energy flow is constricted
    Capstone Project: a culminating performance-based assessment that determines what 12th graders should know and be able to do in various educational disciplines; usually based on research and the development of a major product or project that is an extension of the research
    Choreographic Devices: manipulation of dance movement, sequences or phrases (repetition, inversion, accumulation, cannon, retrograde, call and response)
    Codified Movement: common motion or motions set in a particular style that often have specific names and expectations associated with it
    Context Cues: information obtained from the dance that helps one understand or comprehend meaning and intent from a movement, group of movements, or a dance as a whole; requires seeing relationships between movements and making inferences about the meaning or intent often gleaned from visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli
    Contrapuntal: an adjective that describes the noun counterpoint; music that has at least two melodic lines (voices) played simultaneously against each other; in dance, at least two movement patterns, sequences or phrases danced simultaneously using different body parts or performed by different dancers.
    Cultural Movement Practice: physical movements of a dance that are associated with a particular country, community, or people
    Dance Literacy: the total experience of dance learning that includes the doing and knowing about dance: dance skills and techniques, dance making, knowledge and understanding of dance vocabulary, dance history, dance from different cultures, dance genres, repertory, performers and choreographers, dance companies, and dance notation and preservation.
    Dance Movement Principles: fundamentals related to the craft and skill with which dance movement is performed (for example, the use of dynamic alignment, breath support, core support, rotation, initiation and sequencing, and weight shift)
    Dance Phrase: a brief sequence of related movements that have a sense of continuity and artistic or rhythmic completion
    Dance Structures: the organization of choreography and movement to fulfill the artistic intent of a dance or dance study (for example, AB, ABA or theme and variation); often referred to as choreographic form
    Dance Study: a short dance that is comprised of several dance phrases based on an artistic idea
    Dance Techniques: the tools and skills needed to produce a particular style of movement
    Dance Terminology: vocabulary used to describe dance and dance experiences
    Dance Work: a complete dance that has a beginning, middle (development), and end
    Dynamics: the qualities or characteristics of movement which lend expression and style; also called “efforts,” or “energy" (for example, lyrical, sustained, quick, light, or strong)
    Elements Of Dance: the key components of movement; movement of the body using space, time, and energy; often referred to as the elements of movement; see Elements of Dance Organizer by Perpich Center for Arts Education (used with permission).
    Embody: to physicalize a movement, concept or idea through the body
    Energy: the dynamic quality, force, attach, weight, and flow of movement.
    Evaluative Criteria: the definition of values and characteristics with which dance can be assessed; factors to be considered to attain an aesthetically satisfying dance composition or performance
    Explore: investigate multiple movement possibilities to learn more about an idea
    Free Flowing Movement: an “effort element” from Laban Movement Analysis in which energy is continuous
    Functional Alignment: the organization of the skeleton and musculature in a relationship to gravity that supports safe and efficient movement while dancing
    General Space: spatial orientation that is not focused towards one area of a studio or stage
    Genre: a category of dance characterized by similarities in form, style, purpose, or subject matter (for example, ballet, hip hop, modern, ballroom, cultural practices)
    Genre-Specific Dance Terminology: dance, funk, hip-hop, jazz, modern, tap, and others (for example, in Polynesian dance (Hula), auwana, kahiko, halau, kaholo, uwehe, ami); in ballet: glissade, pas de bouree, pas de chat, arabesque; in jazz: kick ball change, pencil turn, jazz walk, jazz run; in modern: contraction, triplets, spiral, pivot turn; and in tap: shuffle-step, cramp roll, riff, wing, time step
    Kinesthetic Awareness: pertaining to sensations and understanding of bodily movement
    Locomotor: movement that travels from one location to another or in a pathway through space (for example, in PreK, walk, run, tip-toe, slither, roll, crawl, jump, march, gallop; in Kindergarten, the addition of prance, hop, skip, slide, leap)
    Movement Characteristics: the qualities, elements, or dynamics that describe or define a movement
    Movement Phrase: a brief sequence of related movements that have a sense of continuity and artistic or rhythmic completion
    Movement Problem: a specific focus that requires one find a solution and complete a task; gives direction and exploration in composition
    Movement Vocabulary: codified or personal movement characteristics that define a movement style
    Negative Space: the area (space) around and between the dancer(s) or dance images(s) in a dance
    Non-Locomotor: movement that remains in place; movement that does not travel from one location to another or in a pathway through space for example, in PreK, bend, twist, turn, open, close; in Kindergarten, swing, sway, spin, reach, pull)
    Performance Etiquette: performance values and expected behaviors when rehearsing or performing (for instance, no talking while the dance is in progress, no chewing gum, neat and appropriate appearance, dancers do not call out to audience members who are friends)
    Performance Practices: commonly accepted behaviors and practices when rehearsing and performing on stage (for example, production order is technical rehearsal, dress rehearsal, then performance; dancers warm up on stage and must leave when the stage manager tells them; when "places" are called, dancers must be ready to enter the performing space)
    Personal Space: the area of space directly surrounding one’s body extending as far as a person can reach; also called the kinesphere
    Polyrhythmic: in music, several rhythms layered on top of one another and played simultaneously; in dance, embodying several rhythms simultaneously in different body parts
    Production Elements: aspects of performance that produce theatrical effects (for example, costumes, make up, sound, lighting, props)
    Production Terminology: words commonly used to refer to the stage, performance setting, or theatrical aspects of dance presentation
    Rhythm: the patterning or structuring of time through movement or sound
    See.Think.Wonder: an inquiry-based Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) used for critical analysis from Harvard Project Zero, in which children respond to simple questions (What do you see? What do you think? What do you wonder?) which enable a child to begin make meaning from an observed (dance) work of art
    Simple Dance Terminology: (Tier 1/PreK-2): basic pedestrian language (for example, locomotor words walk, run, tip-toe, slither, roll, crawl, jump, march, and gallop; and non-locomotor words bend, twist, turn, open and close)
    Sound Environment: sound accompaniment for dancing other than music (for example, street noise, ocean surf, bird calls, spoken word)
    Space: components of dance involving direction, pathways, facings, levels, shapes, and design; the location where a dance takes place; the element of dance referring to the cubic area of a room, on a stage, or in other environments
    Spatial Design: pre-determined use of directions, levels, pathways, formations, and body shapes
    Stimuli: a thing or event that inspires action, feeling, or thought
    Style: dance that has specific movement characteristics, qualities, or principles that give it distinctive identity (for example, Graham technique is a style of Modern Dance; rhythm tap is a style of Percussive Dance; Macedonian folk dance is a style of International Folk dance; Congolese dance is a style of African Dance)
    Technical Dance Skills: the degree of physical proficiency a dancer achieves within a dance style or technique (for example, coordination, form, strength, speed and range)
    Tempi: different paces or speeds of music, or underlying beats or pulses, used in a dance work or composition (singular: tempo)
    Tempo: the pace or speed of a pulse or beat underlying music or movement (plural: tempi or tempos)
    Theme: a dance idea that is stated choreographically

    Media Arts Glossary

    Attention: principle of directing perception through sensory and conceptual impact
    Balance: principle of the equitable and/or dynamic distribution of items in a media arts composition or structure for aesthetic meaning, as in a visual frame, or within game architecture
    Components: the discrete portions and aspects of media artworks, including: elements, principles, processes, parts, assemblies, etc., such as: light, sound, space, time, shot, clip, scene, sequence, movie, narrative, lighting, cinematography, interactivity, etc., etc.
    Composition: principle of arrangement and balancing of components of a work for meaning and message
    Constraints: limitations on what is possible, both real and perceived
    Context: The situation surrounding the creation or experience of media artworks that influences the work, artist or audience. This can include how, where, and when media experiences take place, as well as additional internal and external factors (personal, societal, cultural, historical, physical, virtual, economic, systemic, etc).
    Continuity: the maintenance of uninterrupted flow, continuous action or self-consistent detail across the various scenes or components of a media artwork, i.e. game components, branding, movie timeline, series, etc.
    Contrast: principle of using the difference between items, such as elements, qualities and components, to mutually complement them
    Convention: an established, common, or predictable rule, method, or practice within media arts production, such as the notion of a ?hero? in storytelling
    Copyright: the exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a produced work
    Design Thinking: a cognitive methodology that promotes innovative problem solving through the prototyping and testing process commonly used in design
    Digital Identity: how one is presented, perceived and recorded online, including personal and collective information and sites, e-communications, commercial tracking, etc.
    Divergent Thinking: unique, original, uncommon, idiosyncratic ideas; thinking ?outside of the box?
    Emphasis: principle of giving greater compositional strength to a particular element or component in a media artwork.
    Ethics: moral guidelines and philosophical principles for determining appropriate behavior within media arts environments
    Exaggeration: principle of pushing a media arts element or component into an extreme for provocation, attention, contrast, as seen in character, voice, mood, message, etc.
    Experiential Design: area of media arts wherein interactive, immersive spaces and activities are created for the user; associated with entertainment design
    Fair Use: permits limited use of copyrighted material without acquiring permission from the rights holders, including commentary, search engines, criticism, etc
    Fairness: complying with appropriate, ethical and equitable rules and guidelines
    Force: principle of energy or amplitude within an element, such as the speed and impact of a character?s motion
    Generative Methods: various inventive techniques for creating new ideas and models, such as brainstorming, play, open exploration, experimentation, inverting assumptions, rule-bending, etc.
    Hybridization: principle of combining two existing media forms to create new and original forms, such as merging theatre and multimedia.
    Interactivity: a diverse range of articulating capabilities between media arts components, such as user, audience, sensory elements, etc, that allow for inputs and outputs of responsive connectivity via sensors, triggers, interfaces, etc., and may be used to obtain data, commands, or information and may relay immediate feedback, or other communications; contains unique sets of aesthetic principles
    Juxtaposition: placing greatly contrasting items together for effect
    Legal: the legislated parameters and protocols of media arts systems, including user agreements, publicity releases, copyright, etc.
    Manage Audience Experience: the act of designing and forming user sensory episodes through multi-sensory captivation, such as using sequences of moving image and sound to maintain and carry the viewer?s attention, or constructing thematic spaces in virtual or experiential design
    Markets: the various commercial and informational channels and forums for media artworks, such as T.V., radio, internet, fine arts, non-profit, communications, etc.
    Meaning: the formulation of significance and purposefulness in media artworks
    Media Arts Contexts: The diverse locations and circumstances of media arts, including its markets, networks, technologies and vocations
    Media Environments: spaces, contexts and situations where media artworks are produced and experienced, such as in theaters, production studios and online
    Media Literacy: a series of communication competencies, including the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate information in a variety of forms, including print and non-print messages. - National Association for Media Literacy Education
    Media Messages: the various artistic, emotional, expressive, prosaic, commercial, utilitarian and informational communications of media artworks
    Modeling Or Concept Modeling: creating a digital or physical representation or sketch of an idea, usually for testing; prototyping
    Movement: principle of motion of diverse items within media artworks
    Multimedia Theatre: the combination of live theatre elements and digital media (sound, projections, video, etc.) into a unified production for a live audience
    Multimodal Perception: the coordinated and synchronized integration of multiple sensory systems (vision, touch, auditory, etc.) in media artworks
    Narrative Structure: the framework for a story, usually consisting of an arc of beginning, conflict and resolution
    Personal Aesthetic: an individually formed, idiosyncratic style or manner of expressing oneself; an artist?s ?voice?
    Perspective: principle pertaining to the method of three-dimensional rendering, point-of-view, and angle of composition
    Point Of View: the position from which something or someone is observed; the position of the narrator in relation to the story, as indicated by the narrator's outlook from which the events are depicted and by the attitude toward the characters
    Positioning: the principle of placement or arrangement
    Production Processes: The diverse processes, procedures, or steps used to carry out the construction of a media artwork, such as prototyping, playtesting, and architecture construction in game design
    Prototyping: creating a testable version, sketch or model of a media artwork, such as a game, character, website, application, etc.
    Resisting Closure: delaying completion of an idea, process or production, or persistently extending the process of refinement, towards greater creative solutions or technical perfection
    Responsive Use Of Failure: Incorporating errors towards persistent improvement of an idea, technique, process or product
    Rules: the laws, or guidelines for appropriate behavior; protocols
    Safety: maintaining proper behavior for the welfare of self and others in handling equipment and interacting with media arts environments and groups
    Soft Skills: diverse organizational and management skills, useful to employment, such as collaboration, planning, adaptability, communication, etc
    Stylistic Convention: a common, familiar, or even ?formulaic? presentation form, style, technique or construct, such as the use of tension building techniques in a suspense film, for example.
    System(S): the complex and diverse technological structures and contexts for media arts production, funding, distribution, viewing, and archiving
    Systemic Communications: socially or technologically organized and higher-order media arts communications such as networked multimedia, television formats and broadcasts, ?viral? videos, social multimedia (e.g. ?vine? videos), remixes, transmedia, etc
    Technological: the mechanical aspects and contexts of media arts production, including hardware, software, networks, code, etc
    Tone: principle of ?color?, ?texture? or ?feel? of a media arts element or component, as for sound, lighting, mood, sequence, etc.
    Transdisciplinary Production: accessing multiple disciplines during the conception and production processes of media creation, and using new connections or ideas that emerge to inform the work.
    Transmedia Production: communicating a narrative and/or theme over multiple media platforms, while adapting the style and structure of each story component to the unique qualities of the platforms
    Virtual Channels: network based presentation platforms such as: Youtube, Vimeo, Deviantart, etc.
    Virtual Worlds: online, digital, or synthetic environments (e.g. Minecraft, Second Life)
    Vocational: the workforce aspects and contexts of media arts

    Music Glossary

    AB: musical form consisting of two sections, A and B, which contrast with each other (binary form)
    ABA: musical form consisting of three sections, A, B, and A; two are the same, and the middle one is different (ternary form)
    Ability: natural aptitude in specific skills and processes; what the student is apt to do, without formal instruction
    Academic vocabulary: words that traditionally are used in academic dialogue and text
    Analog Tools: category of musical instruments and tools that are non-digital (i.e., do not transfer sound in or convert sound into binary code), such as acoustic instruments, microphones, monitors, and speakers.
    Analysis: (see Analyze)
    Analyze: examine in detail the structure and context of the music
    Arrangement: setting or adaptation of an existing musical composition
    Arranger: person who creates alternative settings or adaptations of existing music
    Articulation: characteristic way in which musical tones are connected, separated, or accented; types of articulation include legato (smooth, connected tones) and staccato (short, detached tones)
    Artistic Literacy: knowledge and understanding required to participate authentically in the arts
    Atonality: music in which no tonic or key center is apparent
    Audiate: hear and comprehend sounds in one’s head (inner hearing), even when no sound is present
    Audience Etiquette: social behavior observed by those attending musical performances and which can vary depending upon the type of music performed
    Beat: underlying steady pulse present in most music
    Benchmark: pre-established definition of an achievement level, designed to help measure student progress toward a goal or standard, expressed either in writing or as an example of scored student work (aka, anchor set)
    Binary Form: (see AB)
    Body Percussion: use of the human body as an instrument to create percussive/rhythmic sounds such as stomping, patsching (patting thighs), clapping, clicking, snapping
    Bordun: accompaniment created by sounding two tones, five notes apart, continuously throughout a composition; can be performed in varying ways, such as simultaneously or alternating
    Chant: most commonly, the rhythmic recitation of rhymes, or poems without a sung melody; a type of singing, with a simple, unaccompanied melody line and free rhythm
    Chart: jazz or popular music score, often abbreviated, with a melody (including key and time signature) and a set of chord changes
    Chord Progression: series of chords sounding in succession; certain progressions are typical in particular styles/genres of music
    Collaboratively: working together on a common (musical) task or goal
    Collaboratively-Developed Criteria: qualities or traits for assessing achievement level that have been through a process of collective decision-making
    Complex Formal Structure: musical form in which rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and/or other musical materials undergo significant expansion and development, and may be more distantly related across sections while remaining coherent in some way, such as sonata or other novel design with three or more sections
    Composer: one who creates music compositions
    Composition: original piece of music that can be repeated, typically developed over time, and preserved either in notation or in a sound recording
    Compositional Devices: tools used by a composer or arranger to create or organize a composition or arrangement, such as tonality, sequence, repetition, instrumentation,orchestration, harmonic/melodic structure, style, and form
    Compositional Procedures: techniques that a composer initiates and continues in pieces to develop musical ideas, such as fragmentation, imitation, sequencing, variation, aggregate completion, registral saturation, contour inversion of gestures, augmentation-diminution, sound-silence, motion-stasis, in addition to and rhythmic phrasing
    Compositional Techniques: approaches a composer uses to manipulate and refine the elements to convey meaning and intent in a composition, such as tension-release, compositional devices
    Concepts, Music: understandings or generalized ideas about music that are formed after learners make connections and determine relationships among ideas
    Connection: relationship among artistic ideas, personal meaning, and/or external context
    Context: environment that surrounds music, influences understanding, provides meaning, and connects to an event or occurrence
    Context, Cultural: values, beliefs, and traditions of a group of people that influence musical meaning and inform culturally authentic musical practice
    Context, Historical: conditions of the time and place in which music was created or performed that provide meaning and influence the musical experience
    Context, Personal: unique experiences and relationships that surround a single person and are influenced by personal life, family, habits, interest, and preferences
    Context, Social: environment surrounding something or someone’s creation or intended audience that reflects and influences how people use and interpret the musical experience
    Craftsmanship: degree of skill and ability exhibited by a creator or performer to manipulate the elements of music in a composition or performance
    Create: conceive and develop new artistic ideas, such as an improvisation, composition, or arrangement, into a work
    Creative Intent: shaping of the elements of music to express and convey emotions, thoughts, and ideas
    Creator: one who originates a music composition, arrangement, or improvisation
    Criteria: guidelines used to judge the quality of a student’s performance (See Rubric)
    Cultural Context: values, beliefs, and traditions of a group of people that influence musical meaning and inform culturally authentic musical practice
    Culturally Authentic Performance: presentation that reflects practices and interpretation representative of the style and traditions of a culture
    Culture: values and beliefs of a particular group of people, from a specific place or time, expressed through characteristics such as tradition, social structure, religion, art, and food
    Cyclical Structure: musical form characterized by the return or “cycling around” of significantly recognizable themes, motives, and/or patterns across movements
    Demonstrate: show musical understanding through observable behavior such as moving, chanting, singing, or playing instruments
    Diatonic: seven-tone scale consisting of five whole steps and two half steps
    Digital Environment: simulated place made or created through the use of one or more computers, sensors, or equipment
    Digital Notation: a visual image of musical sound created by using computer software applications, intended either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers
    Digital Resources: anything published in a format capable of being read by a computer, a web-enabled device, a digital tablet, or smartphone
    Digital Systems: platforms that allow interaction and the conversion between and through the audio and digital domains
    Digital Tools: category of musical instruments and tools that manipulate sound using binary code, such as electronic keyboards, digital audio interfaces, MIDI, and computer level or range of loudness of a sound or sound software
    Dynamics: level or range of loudness of a sound or sounds
    Elements Of Music: basic characteristics of sound (pitch, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, timbre, texture, form, and style/articulation) that are manipulated to create music
    Enduring Understanding: overarching (aka, “big”) ideas that are central to the core of the music discipline and may be transferred to new situations
    Ensemble: group of individuals organized to perform artistic work: traditional, large groups such as bands, orchestras, and choirs; chamber, smaller groups, such as duets, trios, and quartets; emerging, such as guitar, iPad, mariachi, steel drum or pan, and Taiko drumming
    Essential Question: question that is central to the core of a discipline –in this case, music – and promotes investigation to uncover corresponding enduring understanding(s)
    Established Criteria:  traits or dimensions for making quality judgments in music of a particular style, genre, cultural context, or historical period that have gained general acceptance and application over time
    Expanded Form: basic form (such as AB, ABA, rondo or theme and variation) expanded by the addition of an introduction, transition, and/or coda
    Explore: discover, investigate, and create musical ideas through singing, chanting, playing instruments, or moving to music
    Expression: feeling conveyed through music
    Expressive Aspects: characteristics that convey feeling in the presentation of musical ideas
    Expressive Intent: the emotions, thoughts, and ideas that a performer or composer seeks to convey by manipulating the elements of music
    Expressive Qualities: qualities such as dynamics, tempo, articulation which -- when combined with other elements of music -- give a composition its musical identity
    Form: element of music describing the overall organization of a piece of music, such as AB, ABA, rondo, theme and variations, and strophic form
    Formal Design: large-scale framework for a piece of music in which the constituent parts cohere into a meaningful whole; encompasses both structural and tonal aspects of thei piece
    Fret: thin strip of material placed across the fingerboard of some stringed Instruments, such as guitar, banjo, and mandolin; the fingers press the strings against the frets to determine pitch
    Function: use for which music is created, performed, or experienced, such as dance, social, recreation, music therapy, video games, and advertising
    Fundamentals Of Music Theory: basic elements of music, their subsets, and how they interact: rhythm and meter; pitch and clefs; intervals; scales, keys and key signatures; triads and seventh chords
    Fusion: type of music created by combining contrasting styles into a new style
    Genre: category of music characterized by a distinctive style, form, and/or content, such as jazz, march, and country
    Guidance: assistance provided temporarily to enable a student to perform a musical task that would be difficult to perform unaided, best implemented in a manner that helps develop that student’s capacity to eventually perform the task independently
    Harmonic Sequences: series of two or more chords commonly used to support melody(ies)
    Harmonization: process of applying stylistically appropriate harmony, such as chords, countermelodies, and ostinato, to melodic material
    Harmonizing Instruments: musical instruments, such as guitars, ukuleles, and keyboards, capable of producing harmonies as well as melodies, often used to provide chordal accompaniments for melodies and songs
    Harmony: chordal structure of a music composition in which the simultaneous sounding of pitches produces chords and their successive use produces chord progressions
    Heterophonic: musical texture in which slightly different versions of the same melody sound simultaneously
    Historical Context: conditions of the time and place in which music was created or performed and that provide meaning and influence the musical experience
    Historical Periods: period of years during which music that was created and/or performed shared common characteristics; historians of Western art music typically refer to the following: Medieval (ca. 500-ca. 1420), Renaissance (ca. 1420-ca. 1600), Baroque (ca. 1600-ca. 1750), Classic (ca. 1750-ca. 1820), Romantic (ca. 1820-ca. 1900), and Contemporary (ca. 1900-)
    Homophonic: musical texture in which all parts move in the same rhythm but use different pitches, as in hymns; also, a melody supported by chords
    Iconic Notation: representation of sound and its treatment using lines, drawings, pictures
    Imagination: ability to generate in the mind ideas, concepts, sounds, and images that are not physically present and may not have been previously experienced (see Audiate)
    Imagine: generate musical ideas for various purposes and contexts
    Improvisation: music created and performed spontaneously or “in-the-moment,” often within a framework determined by the musical style
    Improviser: one who creates music spontaneously or “in-the-moment”
    Independently: working with virtually no assistance, initiating appropriate requests for consultation, performing in a self-directed ensemble offering ideas/solutions that make such consulting collaborative rather than teacher-directed
    Intent: meaning or feeling of the music planned and conveyed by a creator or performer
    Interpret: determine and demonstrate music’s expressive intent and meaning when responding and performing
    Interpretation: intent and meaning that a performer realizes in studying and performing a piece of music
    Intervals: distance between two tones, named by counting all pitch names involved; harmonic interval occurs when two pitches are sounded simultaneously, and melodic interval when two pitches are sounded successively
    Intonation: singing or playing the correct pitch in tune
    Key Signature: set of sharps or flats at the beginning of the staff, following the clef sign, that indicates the primary pitch set or scale used in the music and provide clues to the resting tone and mode
    Lead-Sheet Notation: system symbol used to identify chords in jazz, popular, and folk music; uppercase letters are written above the staff, specifying which chords should be used and when they should be played
    Lyrics: words of a song
    Major Scale: scale in which the ascending pattern of whole and half steps is whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half
    Melodic Contour: shape of a melody created by the way its pitches repeat and move up and down in steps and skips
    Melodic Passage: Short section or series of notes within a larger work that constitutes a single coherent melodic idea
    Melodic Pattern: grouping, generally brief, of tones or pitches
    Melody: linear succession of sounds (pitches) and silences moving through time; the horizontal structure of music
    Meter: grouping of beats and divisions of beats in music, often in sets of twos (duple meter) or threes (triple meter)
    Minor Scale: scale in which one characteristic feature is a half step between the second and third tones; the three forms of the minor scale are natural, harmonic, and melodic
    Modal: music based on a mode other than major or minor
    Model Cornerstone Assessment: suggested assessment process, embedded within a unit of study, that includes a series of focused tasks to measure student achievement within multiple process components
    Moderately Complex Formal Structure: musical form with three or more sections (such as rounded binary, rondo, or other novel design), in which section closure is somewhat nuanced or ambiguous, and the rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and/or other musical materials across sections may be more distantly related while remaining coherent in some way,
    Modes: seven-tone scales that include five whole steps and two half steps; the seven possible modes —Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian— were used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods and served as the basis from which major (Ionian) and minor (Aeolian) scales emerged
    Monophonic: musical texture consisting of a single, unaccompanied melodic line
    Mood: over-all feeling that a section or piece of music conveys
    Motif/Motive: brief rhythmic/melodic figure or pattern that recurs throughout a composition as a unifying element
    Movement: act of moving in nonlocomotor (such as clapping and finger snapping) and locomotor (such as walking and running) patterns to represent and interpret musical sounds
    Music Literacy: knowledge and understanding required to participate authentically in the discipline of music by independently carrying out the artistic processes of creating, performing, and responding
    Music Theory: study of how music is composed and performed; analysis of the elements of music and the framework for understanding musical works
    Music Vocabulary: domain-specific words traditionally used in performing, studying, or describing music (see Academic vocabulary)
    Musical Criteria: traits relevant to assessing music attributes of a work or performance
    Musical Idea: idea expressed in music, which can range in length from the smallest meaningful level (motive or short pattern) through a phrase, a section, or an entire piece
    Musical Range: span between the highest and lowest pitches of a melody, instrument, or voice
    Musical Work: piece of music preserved as a notated copy or sound recording or passed through oral tradition
    Non-Pitched Instruments: instruments, such as woodblocks, whistles, electronic sounds, that do not have definite pitches or tones
    Notation: visual representation of musical sounds
    One-Part Formal Structure: continuous form, with or without an interruption, in which a singular instance of formal closure is achieved only at or near the end of the piece; also known as through-composed
    Open-Ended Assessment: assessment that allows students to demonstrate the learning of a particular outcome in a variety of ways, such as demonstrating understanding of rhythmic notation by moving, singing, or chanting
    Pentatonic Scale: five-tone scale often identified with the pattern of the black keys of a keyboard, although other five-tone arrangements are possible
    Perform: process of realizing artistic ideas and work through interpretation and presentation
    Performance Decorum: aspects of contextually appropriate propriety and proper behavior, conduct, and appearance for a musical performance, such as stage presence, etiquette, and appropriate attire
    Performance Practice: performance and presentation of a work that reflect established norms for the style and social, cultural, and historical contexts of that work
    Performance Technique: personal technical skills developed and used by a performer
    Performing, Performance: experience of engaging in the act of presenting music in a classroom or private or public venue (see also Artistic Process of Performing)
    Personal Context: unique experiences and relationships that surround a single person and are influenced by personal life, family, habits, interest, and preferences
    Personally-Developed Criteria: qualities or traits for assessing achievement level developed by students individualy
    Phrase: musical segment with a clear beginning and ending, comparable to a simple sentence or clause in written text
    Phrasing: performance of a musical phrase that uses expressive qualities such as dynamics, tempo, articulation, and timbre to convey a thought, mood, or feeling
    Piece: general, non-technical term referring to a composition or musical work
    Pitch: identification of a tone or note with respect to highness or lowness (i.e., frequency)
    Plan: select and develop musical ideas for creating a musical work
    Polyphonic: musical texture in which two or more melodies sound simultaneously
    Polytonal: music in which two or more tonalities (keys) sound simultaneously
    Present: share artistic work (e.g., a composition) with others
    Program: presentation of a sequence of musical works that can be performed by individual musicians or groups in a concert, recital, or other setting
    Purpose: reason for which music is created, such as, ceremonial, recreational/social, commercial, or generalized artistic expression
    Refine: make changes in musical works or performances to more effectively realize intent through technical quality or expression
    Repertoire: body or set of musical works that can be performed
    Respond: understand and evaluate how the arts convey meaning
    Rhythm: duration or length of sounds and silences that occur in music; organization of sounds and silences in time
    Rhythmic Passage: Short section or series of notes within a larger work that constitutes a single coherent rhythmic idea
    Rhythmic Pattern: grouping, generally brief, of long and short sounds and silences
    Rondo: musical form consisting of three or more contrasting sections in which one section recurs, such as ABACA
    Rubric: established, ordered set of criteria for judging student performance; includes descriptors of student work at various levels of achievement 
    Scale: pattern of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order and identified by their specific arrangement of whole and half steps
    Score: written notation of an entire music composition
    Section: one of a number of distinct segments that together comprise a composition; a section consists of several phrases
    Select: choose music for performing, rehearsing, or responding based on interest, knowledge, ability, and context
    Sensitivity: skill of a creator, performer, or listener in responding to and conveying the nuances of sound or expression
    Set: sequence of songs or pieces performed together by a singer, band, or disc jockey and constituting or forming part of a live show or recording
    Setting: specified or implied instrumentation, voicing, or orchestration of a musical work
    Setting Of The Text: musical treatment of text as presented in the music
    Share: present artistic work (e.g., a composition) to others
    Sight-Reading: first attempt to perform a notated musical work
    Simple Formal Structure: musical form with a small number of distinct or clearly delineated sections, (such as simple binary, ternary, or other novel design), using closely related rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic materials across the sections
    Social Context: environment surrounding something or someone’s creation or intended audience that reflects and influences how people use and interpret the musical experience
    Sonic Events: individual sounds (or sound masses) and silences whose succession forms patterns and contrasting units that are perceived as musical
    Sonic Experience: perception and understanding of the sounds and silences of a musical work and their inter-relationship
    Stage Presence: performer’s ability to convey music content to a live audience through traits such as personal knowledge of the repertoire, exhibited confidence, decorum, eye contact and facial expression
    Staging: environmental considerations, such as lighting, sound, seating arrangement, and visual enhancements, that contribute to the impact of a musical performance
    Standard Notation: system for visually representing musical sound that is in widespread use; such systems include traditional music staff notation, tablature notation (primarily for fretted stringed instruments), and lead-sheet notation
    Storyline: extra-musical narrative that inspires or explains the structure of a piece of music
    Strophic Form: vocal music in which the music repeats with a new set of text each time
    Structural: (see Structure)
    Structure: totality of a musical work
    Style: label for a type of music possessing distinguishing characteristics and often performance practices associated with its historical period, cultural context, and/or genre
    Stylistic Expression: interpretation of expressive qualities in a manner that is authentic and appropriate to the genre, historical period, and cultural context of origin
    Tablature: system of graphic standard notation, commonly used for fretted stringed instruments, in which a diagram visually represents both the fret board and finger placement on the fret board
    Teacher-Provided Criteria: qualities or traits for assessing achievement level that are provided to students by the teacher
    Technical Accuracy, Technical Skill: ability to perform with appropriate timbre, intonation, and diction as well as to play or sing the correct pitches and rhythms at a tempo appropriate to the musical work
    Technical Aspects: characteristics enabling the accurate representation/presentation of musical ideas
    Technical Challenges: requirements of a particular piece of music that stretch or exceed a performer’s current level of proficiency in technical areas such as timbre, intonation, diction, range, or speed of execution
    Tempo: rate or speed of the beat in a musical work or performance
    Tension/Release: musical device (musical stress, instability, or intensity, followed by musical relaxation, stability, or resolution) used to create a flow of feeling
    Ternary Form: (see ABA)
    Texture: manner in which the harmonic (vertical) and melodic (horizontal) elements are combined to create layers of sound
    Theme And Variations: musical form in which a melody is presented and then followed by two or more sections presenting variations of that melody
    Theoretical: (see Fundamentals of Music Theory)
    Timbre: tone color or tone quality that distinguishes one sound source, instrument, or voice from another
    Tonal Pattern: grouping, generally brief, of tones or pitches
    Tonality: tonic or key tone around which a piece of music is centered
    Transfer: use music knowledge and skills appropriately in a new context
    Unity: presence of structural coherence within a work, generally achieved through the repetition of various elements of music (see Variety) 
    Variety: presence of structural contrast within a work for the purpose of creating and sustaining interest, generally achieved through utilizing variations in the treatment of the elements of music (see Unity) 
    Venue: physical setting in which a musical event takes place
    Vocables: audible sounds and/or nonsense syllables used by vocalists to convey musical ideas or intent
    Vocalizations: vocal exercises that include no text and are sung to one or more vowels


    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards Writing Teams

    Project Director: Phillip E. Shepherd, Manager, Academic Core Branch, Kentucky Department of Education

    Dance Chair: Dr. Rima Faber, President, Capitol Region Educators of Dance Organization and Founding President, National Dance Education Organization

    Dr. Barbara Bashaw, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey

    Karen Kohn Bradley, University of Maryland-College Park and the Laban/Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies, Washington, D.C.
    Dr. Loren E. Bucek, Easthaven Elementary School, Columbus, Ohio
    Joan Finkelstein, New York City Department of Education
    Shana Habel, Los Angeles Unified School District
    Mary Harding, Perpich Center for Arts Education, Golden Valley, Minnesota

    Susan McGreevy, Executive Director, National Dance Education Organization 

    Dale Schmid, New Jersey State Department of Education
    Marty Sprague, Juanita Sanchez High School, Providence, Rhode Island
    Pamela A. VanGilder, Madonna Learning Center, Germantown, Tennessee

    Dr. Lynnette Young Overby, University of Delaware, Newark

    Media Arts 
Chair: Dain Olsen, Los Angeles Unified School District, California

    Jay Davis, Community Health Advocates School, Los Angeles, California
    R. Scot Hockman, South Carolina Department of Education, Columbia
    Jeremy Holien, Perpich Center for Arts Education, Golden Valley, Minnesota

    Anne Kornfeld, Newcomers High School, Long Island City, New York

    Colleen Macklin, Parsons New School for Design, Brooklyn, New York

    Bradley Moss, Maple Mountain High School, Springville, Utah
    Betsy Newman, SC Educational Television, Columbia, South Carolina
    Michele Nelson, Los Angeles Unified School District
    Frank Philip, Arts Assessment Consultant, Annapolis, Maryland
    Martin Rayala, Ph.D, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown
    James Reinhard, North Allegheny Schools, Wexford, Pennsylvania

    Nelle Stokes, Magic Box Productions, Pleasantville, New York
    Evan Tobias, Arizona State University, Tempe

    Music Co-Chairs: Scott C. Shuler, Arts Education Specialist, Connecticut State Department of Education and Past President, National Association for Music Education
Richard Wells, Simsbury Public Schools (retired) and 
Music Chair for the Connecticut Common Arts Assessment Project

    Dr. Richard Baker, Southern University and A & M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Bob Cooper, South Kitsap School District, Port Orchard, Washington

    Thomas Dean, Mount Pleasant High School, Newark, Delaware

    Armalyn De La O, California State University, San Bernardino, Superintendent of Schools Office, San Bernardino, California

    Terry Eder, Plano (Texas) Senior High School
    Barbara J. Good, Clark County School District, Las Vegas, Nevada

    Michael Jothen, Towson University, Phoenix, Maryland

    Carolynn A. Lindeman, San Francisco (California) State University
    Johanna J. Siebert, Webster Schroeder High School, Webster, New York
    Robyn Swanson, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green

    Music General Music Grades Pre K-2 Sub Committee
    Johanna Siebert, Chair
    Tim Adams, Center Elementary School, Ellington Public Schools, CT
    Julie Beauregard, Oregon State University
    Al Heary, Webster Central School District, NY
    Denise Ondishko, Riverview Charter School, Beaufort, SC
    Jennifer Wetzel-Thomas, Mokena School District #159, Downers Grove IL
    Researcher: Wendy Valerio, University of South Carolina

    Music General Music Grades 3-5 Sub Committee
    Barbara Good, Chair
    Nyssa Brown, Perpich Center for Arts Education, MN
    Kay Lehto, Gilbert Elementary School, Clark County School District, NV
    Sandra Nicolucci, Boston University Music Education Department, MA
    Lynn Rechel, Arlington Public Schools, VA
    Leah Riggs, Silverdale Elementary School, Central Kitsap School District, WA
    Rebecca Squire, Saugatuck Elementary School, Westport School District, CT
    Christine Hayes, Chair - Council for General Music Education, Whitewater, WI
    Researcher: Denise Odegaard, Fargo, ND

    Music General Music Grades 6-8 Sub Committee
    Richard Baker, Robyn Swanson, Co-Chairs
    Jacalyn Beam, Christina School District, DE
    Michelle Divine, Whitman Junior High, Warwick, RI
    Debra Hopkins, Lincoln Elementary, Silverton, OR
    Stephen Nystrup, Glastonbury Public Schools, CT
    Kim Yannon-Stock, Dodd Middle School, Cheshire, CT
    Researcher: Ann Clements, Pennsylvania State University

    Music Performing Ensembles Sub Committee
    Armalyn De La O, Tom Dean, Michael Jothen, Co-Chairs
    Renata Bratt, Professional Musician, San Francisco, CA
    Sandra Brown, Plymouth Middle School, Plymouth, MN
    Terry Eberhardt, Howard County Public Schools, Ellicott City, MD
    Windy Fullagar, Alexander Graham Middle School, Charlotte, NC
    Alan Gumm, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant
    Susie Jones, Mt. Hood Community College, OR
    Mary Wagner, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA
    Researcher: Al Holcomb, Westminster Choir College, Princeton, NJ
    Researcher: Glenn Nierman, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
    Researcher: Bret Smith, Central Washington University
    Researcher: Katie Strand, Indiana University
    Researcher: Martin Norgaard, Georgia State University, Atlanta

    Music Harmonizing Instruments Sub Committee
    Bob Cooper, Carolynn Lindeman, Co-Chairs
    Carol Broos, Gumee, IL
    Anne Fennel, Vista Academy, CA
    Julie Gragg, Kingman Middle School, AZ
    Philip Martin, Campbell HS, Litchfield, NH
    Scott Seifried, Fairfax County Public Schools, VA
    Brad Van Patten, Irvine Unified School District, CA
    Karen Childress-Evans, San Diego Unified School District, CA
    Ed Duling, Bowling Green, OH
    Researcher: William Bauer, University of Florida

    Music Composition/Theory Sub Committee
    Terry Eder, Tom Dean Co-Chairs
    Judd Danby, Jefferson HS, Lafayette, IN
    Robert Deemer, SUNY Fredonia, NY
    Michael Levi, College of St. Rose, Albany, NY
    Frank Doyle, Northport HS, Long Island, NY
    Stephen Nystrup, middle school, Glastonbury, CT
    Researcher: Patricia Riley, University of Vermont, VT

    Music Model Cornerstone Assessments
    Bill Bauer, School of Music of the University of Florida
    Frederick Burrack, Kansas State University
    Ann Clements, The Pennsylvania State University School of Music
    Al Holcomb, Westminster Choir College of Rider University, New Jersey
    Glenn Nierman, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Denese Odegaard, Fargo (North Dakota) Public Schools
    Kelly Parkes, Virginia Tech
    Phillip Payne, Kansas State University
    Patricia Riley, University of Vermont
    Bret Smith, Central Washington University
    Katherine Dagmar Strand, Indiana University
    Wendy Valerio, University of South Carolina Children’s Music Development Center

Co-Chairs: Dr. Mary J. Schuttler, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley
    Betsy Quinn, Evanston (Illinois) School District 65
    Rachel Evans, Kean University, Union, New Jersey
    Julia Ashworth, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah

    Victoria Brown, Lucy School, Middletown, Maryland
Wendy Duke, Akron (Ohio) School District
    Linda Krakaur, University of Maryland at College Park
    Jennifer Little, Franklin High School, North Bergen, New Jersey

    Jack Mitchell, California State Department of Education, Sacramento 

    Sarah Pleydell, University of Maryland, College Park 

    Joshua Streeter, Towanda (Pennsylvania) Area School District 

    Leslie Van Leishout, North Thurston Public Schools, Lacey, Washington

    Gustave J. Weltsek, Indiana University/Ivy Tech Community College, Bloomington
    Elisabeth Westphal, Nichols Middle School, Evanston, Illinois

    Scott Wilson, Centennial High School, Columbus (Ohio) City Schools
    Susan Yelverton, Satchel Ford Elementary, Columbia, South Carolina

    Visual Arts 
Chair: Dennis Inhulsen, President, National Art Education Association
 and Principal, Patterson Elementary School, Holly, Michigan
    Kristine Alexander, The California Arts Project, California State University, San Bernardino, California
    September Buys, Greenville Middle School, Greenville, Michigan
    Susan J. Gabbard, Oklahoma City Public Schools, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
    Dr. Olivia Gude, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Art and Design, Chicago, Illinois
    Debra Hannu, Duluth Public Schools, Duluth, Minnesota
    Joyce Huser,  Kansas State Department of Education, Topeka, Kansas
    Elizabeth (Betsy) Logan, Auburn Junior High School, Auburn, Alabama

    Vanessa López, Roland Park Elementary Middle School, Baltimore, Maryland
    Cheryl Maney, Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools, Concord, North Carolina
W. Scott Russell, Loudoun County Public Schools, Leesburg, Virginia

    Dr. Marilyn Stewart, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Department of Art Education and Crafts, Kutztown, Pennsylvania
    Kathi R.Levin, NCCAS Project Consultant, National Art Education Association, Reston, Virginia

    Visual Arts Model Cornerstone Assessments
    Chair, Dr. F. Robert Sabol, NAEA Past President and Professor of Visual and Performing Arts, Purdue University, Crawfordsville, Indiana
    Dr. Olivia Gude, Professor, School of Art and Art History, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
    Debra Hannu, Visual/Media Arts Educator, Duluth Public Schools, Duluth, Minnesota
    Joyce Huser, Fine Arts Education Consultant, Kansas Department of Education, Topeka, Kansas
    Kirby Meng, Art Educator, Union Grove High School, McDonough, Georgia
    Laura Milas, Art Department Chairperson, Hinsdale Central High School, Hinsdale, Illinois
    W. Scott Russell, Elementary Art Educator, Loudoun County Public Schools, Leesburg, Virginia
    Dr. Marilyn Stewart, Professor of Art Education, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown, Pennsylvania
    Diana Woodruff, Director of Visual Arts K-12, Acton Public and Acton-Boxborough Regional Schools, Acton, Massachusetts

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Leadership 2014-2015

    Michael Blakeslee, Senior Deputy Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer, 
National Association for Music Education

    Dr. Jane Bonbright, Founding Executive Director Emeritus, National Dance Education Organization

    Richard W. Burrows, NCCAS Media Arts Committee Co-Chair, Newark (New Jersey) Public Schools, Special Assistant/Arts
    Amy Charleroy, Director of Arts, Office of Academic Initiatives, The College Board 

    David A. Dik, National Executive Director, Young Audiences Arts for Learning

    Kristen Engebretsen, Arts Education Program Manager, Americans for the Arts
    Marcie Granahan, Executive Director, American Alliance for Theatre and Education
    Debora Hansen, State Education Agency Directors of Arts Education, Delaware Department of Education

    Dennis Inhulsen, President, National Art Education Association
Dr. Amy Jensen, Advocacy Director, American Alliance for Theatre and Education

    Kathi R. Levin, NCCAS Project Consultant, National Art Education Association
    Robert Lynch, President and Chief Executive Officer, Americans for the Arts
    Marcia McCaffrey, President, State Education Agency Directors of Arts Education, New Hampshire Department of Education
    Susan McGreevy-Nichols, Executive Director, National Dance Education Organization

    James Palmarini, Director of Educational Policy, Educational Theatre Association
    Dr. Pam Paulson, NCCAS Media Arts Committee Co-chair, Perpich Center for Arts Education Minnesota
    Jeff M. Poulin, Arts Education Program Coordinator, Americans for the Arts

    Dr. Deborah B. Reeve, Executive Director, National Art Education Association

    Narric Rome, Vice President of Government Affairs and Arts Education, Americans for the Arts
Dr. Nancy Rubino, Senior Director, Office of Academic Initiatives, The College Board
    Dr. F. Robert Sabol, Past President, National Art Education Association
    Dr. Scott Shuler, Immediate Past President, National Association for Music Education

    Lynn Tuttle, Past President, State Education Agency Directors of Arts Education
, Arizona Department of Education

    Cory Wilkerson, State Education Agency Directors of Arts Education, Project Manager

    Julie Woffington, Executive Director, Educational Theatre Association


    Partnership Organizations

    The Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
    Lincoln Center Education

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (2014) National Core Arts Standards. Rights Administered by the State Education Agency Directors of Arts Education. Dover, DE, all rights reserved.